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Global MDG Challenge

2.5 billion with no sanitation
1.75 billion to be served by 2015

450 million new installations by 2015

15,000 installations per hour to 2015



Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Ecological Sanitation in Relation to the Social, Cultural and Economic and Financial Context of Sri Lanka

A UNICEF-funded report by Constanze Windberg.

"Ecosan toilets were introduced to Sri Lanka in 2001. There is an increasing interest in ecosan technologies with NGOs and INGOs and Ministries (Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Health). In 2005/6 approximately 50 ecosan toilets were constructed and several upcoming projects include ecosan technologies. However, there is no sound ecosan strategy existing yet. The efforts of the different stakeholders have to be bundled and streamlined. Misconceptions have to be clarified and the limited experiences in Sri Lanka discussed. To facilitate the sustainable introduction of ecosan, UNICEF contracted an international consultant to evaluate the appropriateness of ecological sanitation in relation to the socio-cultural, economic and financial context of Sri Lanka."

The report by Constanze Windberg is divided into four parts, all available for download as PDFs:

  • Introduction [PDF: 925KB]
  • Report 1 of 3: Survey of Urine Diverting Dry Toilet Projects in Sri Lanka [PDF: 2.45MB]
  • Report 2 of 3: Assessment of the Appropriateness of Compost Toilets in Sri Lanka: 17 Key Questions [PDF: 2.15MB]
  • Report 3 of 3: Strategy Development for Successful Implementation of Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Sri Lanka using Stakeholder Analysis [PDF: 1.34MB]
  • Download all four PDFs [ZIP: 6.52MB]



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Last modified: 14-jul-2011